## Summary

The volume of

**one mole**of gas at STP is \(\text{22.4}\) \(\text{dm$^{3}$}\)For any number of moles of gas at STP we can use \(V_{g} = \text{22.4}n_{g}\) to find the volume.

The volume relationship for two gases in a reaction is given by: \(V_{A} = \frac{a}{b}V_{B}\).

where \(V_{A}\) is the volume of gas A, \(V_{B}\) is the gas B, \(a\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of gas A and \(b\) is the stoichiometric coefficient of gas B.

The

**concentration**of a solution can be calculated using: \(C = \frac{n}{V}\)where C is the concentration (in \(\text{mol·dm$^{3}$}\)), n is the number of moles of solute dissolved in the solution and V is the volume of the solution (in \(\text{dm$^{3}$}\)).

A

**standard solution**is a solution in which the concentration is known to a high degree of precision. For the purposes of calculations, a standard solution can be thought of as one in which the concentration is a set value.A titration is a technique for determining the concentration of an unknown solution. We can calculate the unknown concentration using:

\begin{align*} \frac{C_{A}V_{A}}{a} &= \frac{C_{B}V_{B}}{b} \end{align*}

A

**limiting reagent**is a reagent that is completely used up in a chemical reaction.An

**excess reagent**is a reagent that is not completely used up in a chemical reaction.**Percent yield**is calculated using:\[\% \text{yield} = \frac{\text{actual yield}}{\text{theoretical yield}} \times \text{100}\]

Where the actual yield is the amount of product that is produced when you carry out the reaction and the theoretical yield is the amount of product that you calculate for the reaction using stoichiometric methods.

The

**empirical formula**is the simplest formula of a compound.The

**molecular formula**is the full formula of a compound.**Percent purity**is calculated using:\[\% \text{purity} = \frac{\text{mass of compound}}{\text{mass of sample}} \times \text{100}\]

Physical Quantities | ||

Quantity | Unit name | Unit symbol |

Concentration (\(C\)) | moles per cubic decimetre | \(\text{mol·dm$^{-3}$}\) |

Mass (\(m\)) | kilogram | \(\text{kg}\) |

Moles (\(n\)) | moles | \(\text{mol}\) |

Volume (\(V\)) | meters cubed | \(\text{m$^{3}$}\) |

*Table: Units used in quantitative aspects of chemical change*

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